Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Eur J Neurol ; 2: Syndromic validity of apathy in Starksyein disease. The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented starkstein apathy scale with early untreated PD. One of these circuits originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, connects with the ventral globus pallidus and the dorsomedial thalamus, and projects back to the anterior cingulate. The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown, but recent studies suggest that disruption of frontal cortical-basal ganglia circuits and executive dysfunction may both play an important sdale.

Apathy is most frequently associated with depression and severe dementia.

Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among patients with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al. In conclusion, current theories explain apathy as the behavioural expression of the disruption of cognitive modules that deal with the organization of human action, drive and motivation.


A prospective longitudinal study of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 17 Behavioural and psychological syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease.

The authors found a significant improvement on apathy measures over the course of the study, but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups on any of the outcome measures. Selegiline in the management of apathy following traumatic brain injury. To examine whether apathy should be considered a mere symptom of depression in dementia, we first examined whether the onset of depression during the follow-up period was associated with increasing apathy. Habib’s proposal is certainly interesting and fits nicely with the current model of segregated basal ganglia-frontal lobe loops for the modulation of behaviour.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

J Nerv Ment Dis ; 1: This procedure may result in apathy groups with different syndromic clusters. Patients with scores of 2 or higher were considered apathetic. A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who had moderate to severe head injuries Whyte et al.

Cummings developed the Neuropsychiatric Scalee as a multidimensional instrument administered to an informant Cummings J Neural Transm May; Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease: We have recently published the validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy Starkstein et al. Apathy starksteon highly prevalent among patients with dementia.


Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: The authors have no disclosures to report.

The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action. We found a significantly greater increase in depression scores during the follow-up period for patients with apathy as compared to those without apathy, suggesting that apathy is a significant predictor of depression in Starkstejn.

Brain Inj ; 19 2: There are several valid and reliable scales to measure the severity of apathy in adults with neuropsychiatric disorders. One of the main diagnostic dilemmas is how to separate apathy from depression.

Group differences in the relationship between apathy and depression.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

Brain Inj Jan; 13 1: A structured clinical interview and a specific set of diagnostic criteria to diagnose apathy in starkstrin have been recently validated. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol ; 15 3: It is important to stress that the effect of rivastigmine was not specific for apathy, since improvements were also noticed on other neuropsychiatric disturbances.

Furthermore, changes on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were rather small and may not have been clinically relevant.