Ledinegg Instability. Figure 1: Sketch illustrating the Ledinegg instability. Two- phase flows can exhibit a range of instabilities. Usually, however, the instability is . will focus on internal flow systems and the multiphase flow instabilities that occur in . Ledinegg instability (Ledinegg ) which is depicted in figure This. Ledinegg instability In fluid dynamics, the Ledinegg instability occurs in two- phase flow, especially in a boiler tube, when the boiling boundary is within the tube.

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Depending on the operating conditions, the oscillations can be periodic or chaotic. However, feedback effects also are paramount in the phenomena. Examples and applications Historically, probably the most commonly studied cases of two-phase flow are in large-scale power systems. Indeed there is a voluminous literature on this subject [Lahey and Drew ].

The static Ledinegg instability in horizontal microchannels under different flow conditions and fluids pertinent to electronics cooling was studied experimentally and numerically.

When the power is in between the above specified range, the internal pressure loss curve intersects the driving buoyancy curve at three points i. On the other hand, with increase in local losses in the single-phase region such as orificing at the inlet of channelsthe improvement in stability has been found to be conditional [ 240 ] unlike in forced circulation systems wherein it has been observed that with increase in local losses in the single-phase region always improves the flow stability.

Fluid dynamics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Physics spartacus Thus, there can be five different flow rates for a particular operating condition of power and subcooling as indicated in Figure 2 by points A—E. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded.

Instead, the system swings from one solution to the other. Instabi,ity the occurrence of the critical heat flux, a region of transition boiling, may be observed in many situations as in pool boiling see Figure 9 a.

Member feedback about Two-phase flow: Several decades have been spent on the study of flow instabilities in boiling two-phase natural circulation systems.

But it may stabilize or destabilize type II instabilities depending on its time period [ 44 ]. The characteristics of the flow excursion instability or Ledinegg type instability depend very much on the geometry ledinegt well as the system pressure, power, and channel inlet subcooling [ 22 ].

## Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations

DWO occurs at flow rates lower than the flow rate at which pressure-drop oscillation is observed. However, both instabilities increase with rise in subcooling. Rizwan-Uddin and Dorning [ 35 ] found that the threshold power for stability in boiling channel is sensitive to the void distribution parameter considered in the analysis.

Abstract The static Ledinegg instability in horizontal microchannels under different flow conditions and fluids pertinent to electronics cooling was studied experimentally and numerically. A detailed description of the analytical procedure has been given previously by Lahey and Podowski and will not be repeated here.

Index of physics articles L topic The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size. The effect of riser geometry such as riser height and area on flow stability is important. Other examples of instabilities associated with boiling inception in stable single-phase NCs are:.

Following a perturbation, if the system returns back to the original steady state, then the system is considered to be stable. Another type instability which can occur in systems with a compressible volume a pressurizer for example at the inlet of the heated channel is the pressure-drop-type instability.

The internal pressure loss of the system includes the losses due to friction, elevation, acceleration and local in the heated portion, the riser pipes and the steam drum, and all the losses except the elevation loss in the downcomers. The parameter is a hypothetical concept called Superficial velocity. Krishnan and Gulshani [ 16 ] observed such instability in a figure-of-eight loop.

However, the type II instability, which occurs at high power or void fraction, disappears with increase in riser diameter [ 38 ] due to reduction in void fraction or decrease in two-phase pressure drop.

### Ledinegg instability in microchannels — Arizona State University

However, there are many situations with multiple steady-state solutions where the threshold of instability cannot be predicted from the steady-state laws alone or the predicted threshold is modified by other effects.

Certain instabilities are characteristic of the loop geometry. Type I Instability For this type of instability to occur, the presence of a long riser plays an important role such as in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop. Although this is a general characteristic it hardly distinguishes the different types of instabilities found to occur in various systems. While most of the work has been devoted to generate data for steady state ledineggg threshold of flow instabilities in Instabbility, however, it was felt that more investigations on characteristics of these jnstability instabilities must be conducted in future, which is not understood enough.

Several regimes of unstable flow with subcooled boiling can be observed depending on the test section power such as a instability with sporadic boiling boiling does not occur in every cycle ; b instability with subcooled boiling once in every cycle; c instability with subcooled boiling twice in every cycle; and d instability with fully developed boiling.

This classification is actually restricted to only the dynamic instzbility. In boiling NC systems with multiple parallel channels, inphase and out of phase modes are present depending on the geometry of the channels and heating conditions. View instabilityy Google Scholar V.

Different models of two-phase flow have been used for modelling these flow instabilities, which range from the simplest HEM to more rigorous two-fluid model. To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below. Linearizing Equation 1we obtain. instabiloty

As the flow area is increased, the flow rate increases, which gives rise to small frequency oscillations, typical of low quality type I density-wave instability Figure 19 due to reduction in void fraction. Many numerical codes in time domain as well as in frequency domain have been developed using various mathematical modelling techniques to simulate the flow instabilities occurring in the NCSs.

## Two-Phase Instabilities

For example, if the system is initially operating at point C, any slight disturbance causing the flow to increase will shift the flow rate to point D and the to point E. The sudden condensation results in depressurization causing the liquid water to rush in and occupy the space vacated by the condensed bubble.

A dynamic force balance on the boiling loop yields: Two-phase flow can occur in various forms, such as flows transitioning from pure liquid to vapor as a result of external heating, separated flows, and dispersed two-phase flows where one phase is present in the form of particles, droplets, or bubbles in a continuous carrier phase i.